Étienne Polverel

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Étienne Polveral (also "Étienne Polverel") – Arrived in Le Cap aboard the America as a Civil Commissioner to Saint-Domingue on September 17, 1792, along with Léger Félicité Sonthonax and Jean-Antoine Ailhaud. (Dubois, p. 142) Polverel was given charge of the West, and when Ailhaud abandoned his post, he took responsibility for the South as well. (Fick, p. 315 n3)

When Polveral's son was seized as a hostage, General Galbaud proposed to exchange the boy for the general's brother, César Galbaud, who had been taken prisoner by the Commissioners. (Heinl, p. 56) Polveral replied: "I adore my son, but he cannot be exchanged for the life of a traitor. Please do not refer to this matter again." (Parkinson, p. 68)


  • Dubois, Laurent. (2004). Avengers of the New World: The Story of the Haitian Revolution. Cambridge, MA: The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press. ISBN 0-674-01304-2.
  • Parkinson, Wenda (1978). This Gilded African. London: Quartet Books. ISBN 0-7043-2187-4
  • Fick, Carolyn E. (1990). The Making of Haiti: The Saint Domingue Revolution from Below. Knoxville: The University of Tennessee Press. ISBN 0-87049-667-0.