Yet many whites detested them. In fact, the term affranchi, meaning "ex-slave" was an insult term, designed to remind wealthy men and women who had been born in freedom that whites considered them still to be ex-slaves, because of their African ancestry. Whites' belief that anything linked with Africa, even by the slightest drop of blood, was abject and debasing and identified with being inferior. Mulattoes had reasoned that they had to distance themselves from their African roots in an attempt to receive more acceptance from the white colonists. One of their leaders, the indigo planter Julien Raimond, claimed they owned a third of all the slaves in the colony. Many were committed to maintaining slavery in the early years of the French Revolution and Haitian Revolution.
- Le Code Noir - French document regulating racial distinctions in c olonial society.
- History of the Disasters in Saint-Domingue - Text by a French man living in Saint-Domingue, describing the involvement of affranchis in the early stages of the Haitian Revolutions.
- Jean Baptiste Chavannes - An affranchis and associate of Vincent Ogé.
- Vincent Ogé - A mulatto rebel leader, executed for leading a rebellion.
- Letter to the Citizens of Color and Free Negroes of Saint-Domingue - 1791 letter by Henri Grégoire refering to Ogé.
- Mulatto - Term used for the offspring of African and European ancestry.
- Saint-Domingue's Free People of Color and the Tools of Revolution - Speech given in 2004 by John Garrigus.
- Commentary on Session II: Saint-Domingue on the Eve of Revolution: The Free People of Color - Remarks by Jane Landers.
- Affranchi. (2005, November 13). Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Retrieved 14:57, December 5, 2005 .