François Mackandal (or Macandal) was the one-armed maroon chief who coordinated a failed mass poisoning of whites in St. Domingue (the Mackandal Rebellion). He spoke Arabic, and he practiced Islam and sorcery. He terrorized the French with constant raids on plantations and refineries. He was captured and burned at the stake in Cap Français in January 1758. (Heinl, p. 26-27)
- Heinl, Robert Debs, Jr; Heinl, Nancy Gordon; & Heinl, Michael (Rev. & Exp) (1996). Written In Blood: The Story of the Haitian People, 1492–1995 (Revised edition). Lanham, MD: University Press of America. ISBN 0-7618-0230-4.