The Start of the French Revolution
The relation of the French and Haitian Revolutions
The French and Haitian Revolutions are interconnected in many ways and one might say that it was Toussaint Louverture's and Jean-Jacques Dessalines genius that enabled them to lead the rebels in Saint-Domingue (later renamed Haiti) toward their final victory over France through successful military, political and diplomatic navigation of the upheavals of the outgoing 18th century, These upheavals of course were very much related to the emergence of capitalism as a driving economic force and the revolutions in countries such as the United States and France.
Roume and Jean-Paul Marat
One example of the interconnectedness of these two important revolutions in the outgoing 18th century, is the relationship between Roume one of the the French envoys - sent to Saint-Domingue in November of 1791 just months after the events at Bois Caïman and the Boukman Rebellion - and Jean-Paul Marat, a leading figure of the French Revolution. Roume did use his influence in Spain, to obtain the directorship of the Academy of Sciences in Madrid for Marat. (Belfort Bax chapter III) While Roume was ultimately expelled by Toussaint Louverture in 1800 after his second stint in the colony, he was an important representative of revolutionary France in Saint-Domingue at the time and therefore sent to enforce the bourgeois ideals of France, that did not coincide with the slaves wishes for freedom and equality.
Note 1: France, under the Ancien Régime (the monarchy before the French Revolution), divided society into three estates: the First Estate or clergy; the Second Estate or nobility; and the Third Estate or commoners.
- French Republican Calendar A calendar proposed during the French Revolution, and used by the French government for about twelve years from November 1793.
- Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen - A very important document, although it was not meant to include slaves.
- Jacobins - The revolutionaries.
- Royalists - Supporters of absolute and constitutional monarchy, opposed to the French Revolution.
- Red Cockades - Supporters of the French Revolution.
- White Cockades - Pro-Royalist counter-revolutionaries to the Jacobins.
- French Revolution. (2005, December 5). Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Retrieved 16:20, December 5, 2005 .
- Belfort Bax, Ernest. (1900) Jean-Paul Marat, The People’s Friend. London: Grant Richards. (Available online at www.marxists.org)
- James, C.L.R. (1989). The Black Jacobins. Toussaint L'Ouverture and the San Domingo Revolution. (2nd Ed., Revised) New York: Vintage Press. ISBN 0-679-72467-2.
- Wikipedia contributors (2006). Estates of the realm. Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Retrieved 03:08, February 12, 2006 .
- Musée de la Révolution Française - Museum of the French Revolution (French text).
- The Project Gutenberg EBook of History of the French Revolution from 1789 to 1814 by F.A.M. Mignet (1824) - full text of book on the French Revolution. (online publication).
- Wikipedia: Glossary of the French Revolution