History of Jacmel
The city was created in 1698 as the capital of the south eastern part of the French colony Saint-Domingue.
The War of Knives
Toussaint Louverture fought over Jacmel in the so-called War of Knives between him and André Rigaud. This war began in June of 1799. By November the rebels were pushed back to this strategic southern port, the defence of which was commanded by Pétion. Jacmel fell to Toussaint's troops in March of 1800 and the rebellion was effectively over. Pétion and other mulatto leaders went into exile in France.
Rochambeau brings Napoléon Bonaparte's Genocide to Jacmel
In 1803 Genaral Rochambeau's arrival at Jacmel was signalized by a horrible crime: by his orders, about 100 natives, who were only suspected of having little zeal for France, were thrown into the hold of a man-of-war 1, the hatchways of which were tightly closed; the men were then suffocated by the fumes of the ignited sulphur, their corpses being afterward thrown into the sea." (Léger p. 130
Francisco de Miranda creates the Venezuelan flag
A predecessor of Simón Bolívar in the liberation struggle from colonialism in Spanish ruled South America, Francisco de Miranda, created the first Venezuelan flag near Jacmel. Anchored in the Bay of Jacmel (Baie de Jacmel), he first raised the flag on March 12, 1806 on the Corvette Leander. This day is still celebrated as Venezuelan Flag Day.
The port town is internationally known for it's vibrant art scene and elegant townhouses dating to the 1800's. In recent years Jacmel has been host to a large film festival: Festival Film Jakmèl, This festival led to the founding of Haiti's first film school, the Ciné Institute. It's traditional carnival, the nearby Bassins Bleu (blue water pools), and the beaches attract many visitors.
Notable residents of Jacmel
Magloire Ambroise a hero of the Haitian Revolution, was born here in 1774. The world reknown painter Préfète Duffaut (born in Cyvadier near Jacmel in 1923) lives and works in the city.
Note 1: A man-of-war refers to an armed naval vessel.
- Wikipedia contributors (2006). Francisco de Miranda. Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Retrieved 19:19, May 2, 2006 .
- Jacmel. The Columbia Gazetteer of North America, edited by Saul B. Cohen. New York: Columbia University Press, 2000. [accessed May 2, 2006] .
- Haiti Reference: Profil de la Ville de Jacmel. [accessed May 2, 2006] .
- Léger, Jacques Nicolas. Haiti Her History And Her Detractors. (1907). The Neale Publishing Company. New York. available online - Accessed on August 16, 2007
Books about Jacmel
- Danticat, Edwidge. (2002) After the Dance : A Walk Through Carnival in Jacmel, Haiti. New York: Crown Publishers (Random House). ISBN 0609609084.
- Haiti Reference: Profil de la Ville de Jacmel - Information about Jacmel [French text].
- Festival Film Jakmèl - Jacmel Film Festival.
- FOSAJ - Fanal Otantik Sant D'A Jakmel - Art center in Jacmel hosting artists studios, performance space, workshops, cultural events, and visiting artist residencies.
- Konbit Pou Ayiti - KONPAY: Konbit Pou Ayiti (Working Together for Haiti) Focuses on Haitian solutions to environmental, social and economic problems - provides training and funding to grassroots and community-based projects.
- Préfète Duffaut: piété et urbanisme imaginaire - Excerpt of a 2007 documentary directed by Arnold Antonin. (French and Haitian Creole language)
- Jacmel, Haiti (documentary) - Excerpt of a documentary from 1998 by Rachèle Magloire and Carl Lafontant. (French Language)
- Bassin Bleu - Information about the destination near Jacmel.