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PÃ©tion - the first President of the Republic of Haiti
PÃ©tion was born in Port-au-Prince to a black mother and a French father, Pascal SabÃ¨s. He was sent to France in 1788 to study at the Military Academy in Paris. He returned to take part in the expulsion of the British (1798â99). His mulatto heritage meant that when tensions arose between blacks and mulattoes he supported the mulatto faction.
PÃ©tion was one of the signers of the Haitian Declaration of Independence.
The War of Knives
He allied with General AndrÃ© Rigaud and Jean Pierre Boyer against Toussaint Louverture in the failed rebellion, the so-called War of Knives, which began in June 1799. By November the rebels were pushed back to the strategic southern port of Jacmel, the defense was commanded by PÃ©tion. The town fell in March 1800 and the rebellion was effectively over. PÃ©tion and other mulatto leaders went into exile in France.
The Fight against NapolÃ©on's troops
He returned in February 1802 with Boyer, Rigaud and the 12,000 strong French army commanded by French General Leclerc, sent by NapolÃ©on Bonaparte to re-establish slavery. Following the treacherous treatment of Toussaint and the renewed struggle he joined the nationalist force in October 1802 following a secret conference at Arcahaie and supported Jean-Jacques Dessalines, the general who had captured Jacmel. The capital was taken on October 17, 1803 and independence was declared on January 1, 1804. Dessalines was made ruler for life and had himself crowned emperor on October 6, 1804.
Following the assassination of Dessalines at Pont-Rouge (formerly Pont-Larnage) on October 17, 1806, PÃ©tion championed democracy and clashed with Henri Christophe. Christophe was offered a democratic presidency, but this failed. The country divided between them and the tensons between the blacks and mulattoes were reignited. After the inconclusive struggle dragged on until 1810 a peace was agreed and the country was split in two. While Christophe made himself king, PÃ©tion had himself elected President of the southern part of Haiti in 1806. Initially a supporter of democracy he found the constraints imposed on him by the senate onorous and suspended the legislature in 1818. In 1816 he turned his post into President for Life.
He was active in seizing the commercial plantations and divided the land thus gained amongst his supporters and the peasantry, earning himself the nickname Papa Bon-KÃ¨ ("good-hearted daddy"). The land grab dealt a serious blow to the economy of the country and most of the population did little more than subsistence farming. He started the LycÃ©e PÃ©tion in Port-au-Prince.
Jean-Pierre Boyer was made the successor of PÃ©tion and took control following the death of PÃ©tion through yellow fever in 1818.
Support for SimÃ³n Bolivar
- Alexandre PÃ©tion. (2005, November 1). Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Retrieved 16:23, December 9, 2005 .