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[[image:napoleon_bonap_horseback.jpg|right|thumb|180px|Napoléon Bonaparte and his horse Vizir.]]'''Napoléon Bonaparte''' (born ''Napoleone di Buonaparte'') (August 15, 1769 Ajaccio, Corsica - May 5, 1821 St. Helena) became [[Toussaint Louverture]]'s main enemy after he came to power in [[1799]]. The French emperor tried to re-establish [[slavery]] in the Caribbean colony [[Saint-Domingue]] through his brother in law [[General Leclerc]]. He had Toussaint Louverture captured by deceit and transferred to a [[Fort de Joux|dungeon in the  French Alps]] where the Haitian revolutionary leader later died.
[[image:napoleon_bonap_horseback.jpg|right|thumb|180px|Napoléon Bonaparte and his horse Vizir.]]'''Napoléon Bonaparte''' (born ''Napoleone di Buonaparte'') (August 15, 1769 Ajaccio, Corsica - May 5, 1821 St. Helena) became [[Toussaint Louverture]]'s main enemy after he came to power in [[1799]]. The French emperor tried to re-establish [[slavery]] in the Caribbean colony [[Saint-Domingue]] through his brother in law [[General Leclerc]]. He had Toussaint Louverture captured by deceit and transferred to a [[Fort de Joux|dungeon in the  French Alps]] where the Haitian revolutionary leader later died.
 
  
 
==The First Consul==
 
==The First Consul==
Napoléon Bonaparte was a general of the [[French Revolution]], and the ruler of France as '''First Consul''' (''Premier Consul'') of the First French Republic from November 11, [[1799]] to [[May 18]], [[1804]], then as Emperor of the French (''Empereur des Français'') and King of Italy under the name '''Napoleon I''' (French: ''Napoléon Ier'') from [[May 18]], [[1804]] to April 6, 1814, and again briefly from March 22, to June 22, 1815. <br>
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Napoléon Bonaparte was a general of the [[French Revolution]], and the ruler of France as '''First Consul''' (''Premier Consul'') of the First French Republic from November 11, [[1799]] to [[May 18]], [[1804]], then as Emperor of the French (''Empereur des Français'') and King of Italy under the name '''Napoleon I''' (French: ''Napoléon Ier'') from [[May 18]], [[1804]] to April 6, 1814, and again briefly from March 22, to June 22, 1815. <br>
Napoléon first came to power on November 9, 1799 (the "''18th [[Brumaire]]''") through a coup d'état, thus ending the French Revolution.
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Napoléon first came to power on November 9, 1799 (the "''18th [[Brumaire]]''") through a coup d'état, thus ending the French Revolution.
  
 
====Re-establishing slavery in the colonies====
 
====Re-establishing slavery in the colonies====
 
In late 1801 Bonaparte dispatched the generals [[Antoine Richepanse]] to Guadeloupe and [[Leclerc]] to Saint-Domingue with the goals to massacre Africans living in the colonies and to once again establish [[slavery]].
 
In late 1801 Bonaparte dispatched the generals [[Antoine Richepanse]] to Guadeloupe and [[Leclerc]] to Saint-Domingue with the goals to massacre Africans living in the colonies and to once again establish [[slavery]].
  
"On the 20th of May, [[1801]], Bonaparte published [[Napoléon decree re-establishing slavery in the French colonies (French)|the infamous decree]] which placed the French colonies in the state in which they were before the year [[1789]], and which, authorizing the slave-trade, abrogated all laws to the contrary. This execrable <small>{{fn|1}}</small>  measure marks the real character of the Corsican adventurer, and hands his name down to posterity covered with disgrace. Soon, however, did he find that in an evil hour he had overstepped the limits of prudence; and therefore he put forth another decree which hypocritically excepted [[Saint Domingo]] and Guadeloupe, "''because these islands are free, not only by right, but in fact, whilst the other colonies are actually in slavery, and it would be dangerous to put an end to that state of things.''" ([[Toussaint L'Ouverture: A Biography and Autobiography|Beard]] p. 154)
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"On the 20th of May, [[1801]], Bonaparte published [[Napoléon decree re-establishing slavery in the French colonies (French)|the infamous decree]] which placed the French colonies in the state in which they were before the year [[1789]], and which, authorizing the slave-trade, abrogated all laws to the contrary. This execrable <small>{{fn|1}}</small>  measure marks the real character of the Corsican adventurer, and hands his name down to posterity covered with disgrace. Soon, however, did he find that in an evil hour he had overstepped the limits of prudence; and therefore he put forth another decree which hypocritically excepted [[Saint Domingo]] and Guadeloupe, "''because these islands are free, not only by right, but in fact, whilst the other colonies are actually in slavery, and it would be dangerous to put an end to that state of things.''" ([[Toussaint L'Ouverture: A Biography and Autobiography|Beard]] p. 154)
  
====Napoléon's Caribbean Genocide====
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====Napoléon's Caribbean Genocide====
  
Napoléon's lagacy in the Caribbean is one of great violence, genocide and destruction. The French historian Claude Ribbe states: "''...Napoleon ordered the killing of as many blacks as possible in [[Haiti]] and Guadeloupe to be replaced by new, docile slaves from Africa,''" (Randall)
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Napoléon's lagacy in the Caribbean is one of great violence, genocide and destruction. The French historian Claude Ribbe states: "''...Napoleon ordered the killing of as many blacks as possible in [[Haiti]] and Guadeloupe to be replaced by new, docile slaves from Africa,''" (Randall)
  
Late in the war against the Haitian revolutionary forces, Napoléon Bonaparte's troops resorted to outright genocidal tactics. In [[1803]], General "''[[Rochambeau]]'' [Napoléon's supreme commander and under his direct orders]'', accompanied by the French Generals Pageot and Lavalette, undertook to subdue ''[the Haitian troops]''''. His arrival at [[Jacmel]] was signalized by a horrible crime: by his orders, about 100 natives, who were only suspected of having little zeal for France, were thrown into the hold of a man-of-war <small>{{fn|2}}</small>, the hatchways of which were tightly closed; the men were then suffocated by the fumes of the ignited sulphur, their corpses being afterward thrown into the sea.''" {Léger p. 130)
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Late in the war against the Haitian revolutionary forces, Napoléon Bonaparte's troops resorted to outright genocidal tactics. In [[1803]], General "''[[Rochambeau]]'' [Napoléon's supreme commander and under his direct orders]'', accompanied by the French Generals Pageot and Lavalette, undertook to subdue ''[the Haitian troops]''''. His arrival at [[Jacmel]] was signalized by a horrible crime: by his orders, about 100 natives, who were only suspected of having little zeal for France, were thrown into the hold of a man-of-war <small>{{fn|2}}</small>, the hatchways of which were tightly closed; the men were then suffocated by the fumes of the ignited sulphur, their corpses being afterward thrown into the sea.''" {Léger p. 130)
  
 
====The Louisiana Purchase====
 
====The Louisiana Purchase====
In [[1803]], Bonaparte faced a major setback when an army he sent in [[1801]] under the command of [[General Leclerc]] (After Leclercs death in [[1802]] this force was led by General [[Rochambeau]]) to reconquer [[Saint-Domingue]] and re-establish slavery, was destroyed by a fierce resistance of the Haitian fighters led by [[Toussaint Louverture]] and after Toussaint had been deported to France, [[Jean-Jacques Dessalines]]. Recognizing that the French possessions on the mainland of North America would now be indefensible, and facing imminent war with Britain, he sold them to the United States —the [[The Revolution and the Louisiana Purchase|Louisiana Purchase]]—for less than three cents per acre ($7.40/km²).  
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In [[1803]], Bonaparte faced a major setback when an army he sent in [[1801]] under the command of [[General Leclerc]] (After Leclercs death in [[1802]] this force was led by General [[Rochambeau]]) to reconquer [[Saint-Domingue]] and re-establish slavery, was destroyed by a fierce resistance of the Haitian fighters led by [[Toussaint Louverture]] and after Toussaint had been deported to France, [[Jean-Jacques Dessalines]]. Recognizing that the French possessions on the mainland of North America would now be indefensible, and facing imminent war with Britain, he sold them to the United States —the [[The Revolution and the Louisiana Purchase|Louisiana Purchase]]—for less than three cents per acre ($7.40/km²).  
  
 
====The loss of Saint-Dominque====
 
====The loss of Saint-Dominque====
[[image:napoleon_bonaparte_portrait.jpg|left|thumb|150px|Napoléon Bonaparte]]Although Napoléon Bonaparte had given orders to his brother in law General Leclerc to capture the leader of the Haitian Revolution [[Toussaint Louverture]], the Haitians regrouped. Under the command of [[Jean-Jacques Dessalines]] the disparate forces fighting against the French attempt to regain control in Saint-Dominque - and Napoléon's attempt re-establish slavery - were united. The French troops, over 30.000 of which had arrived in the colony in 1802, could not stand up to Dessalines, who had turned the conflict into a guerilla war. The fighting culminated in the [[Battle of Vertières]], hours after which the French military leader [[General Rochambeau]] capitulated. While Leclerc had been unable to contain the Haitian forces, Rochambeau's cruel actions served to further unite Napoléon's Haitian enemies.
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[[image:napoleon_bonaparte_portrait.jpg|left|thumb|150px|Napoléon Bonaparte]]Although Napoléon Bonaparte had given orders to his brother in law General Leclerc to capture the leader of the Haitian Revolution [[Toussaint Louverture]], the Haitians regrouped. Under the command of [[Jean-Jacques Dessalines]] the disparate forces fighting against the French attempt to regain control in Saint-Dominque - and Napoléon's attempt re-establish slavery - were united. The French troops, over 30.000 of which had arrived in the colony in 1802, could not stand up to Dessalines, who had turned the conflict into a guerilla war. The fighting culminated in the [[Battle of Vertières]], hours after which the French military leader [[General Rochambeau]] capitulated. While Leclerc had been unable to contain the Haitian forces, Rochambeau's cruel actions served to further unite Napoléon's Haitian enemies.
  
The loss of the colony of Saint-Domingue was a major blow to the French empire. While the fighting in Saint-Domingue, beginning with the [[Boukman Rebellion]] in [[1791]] had cut down the profits of the [[slavery|slave system]], Napoléon had intended to restore the colonial economy of Saint-Domingue, which had been the worlds richest and most productive colony. Napoléon had given up Louisiana in an attempt to keep control of the possessions in the [[Caribbean Sea]]. Whereas the French had re-installed slavery in Guadeloupe through [[Richepanse]], news of which installed great fear in Saint-Domingue, they had lost the revenue from slavery in what became [[Haiti]] in [[1804]] and received their first major defeat in their global conquest.
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The loss of the colony of Saint-Domingue was a major blow to the French empire. While the fighting in Saint-Domingue, beginning with the [[Boukman Rebellion]] in [[1791]] had cut down the profits of the [[slavery|slave system]], Napoléon had intended to restore the colonial economy of Saint-Domingue, which had been the worlds richest and most productive colony. Napoléon had given up Louisiana in an attempt to keep control of the possessions in the [[Caribbean Sea]]. Whereas the French had re-installed slavery in Guadeloupe through [[Richepanse]], news of which installed great fear in Saint-Domingue, they had lost the revenue from slavery in what became [[Haiti]] in [[1804]] and received their first major defeat in their global conquest.
  
  
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==See also==
 
==See also==
* '''[[Jean-Jacques Dessalines]]''' - Defeated Napoléon's troops and declared Haitian independence in [[1804]].
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* '''[[Jean-Jacques Dessalines]]''' - Defeated Napoléon's troops and declared Haitian independence in [[1804]].
  
====Correspondence between Toussaint Louverture and Napoléon Bonaparte====
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====Correspondence between Toussaint Louverture and Napoléon Bonaparte====
* [[Toussaint letter to Napoleon on the 1801 Constitution]] - This letter was sent to Napoléon Bonaparte with the [[Haitian Constitution of 1801 (English)|constitution]].
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* [[Toussaint letter to Napoleon on the 1801 Constitution]] - This letter was sent to Napoléon Bonaparte with the [[Haitian Constitution of 1801 (English)|constitution]].
 
** [[Charles-Humbert-Marie de Vincent]] - A French official in Saint-Domingue and a friend of Louverture. He was charged with bringing the constitution to Bonaparte.
 
** [[Charles-Humbert-Marie de Vincent]] - A French official in Saint-Domingue and a friend of Louverture. He was charged with bringing the constitution to Bonaparte.
* [[Toussaint Louverture letter to Napoléon from onboard the Hero]] - Toussaint pleads for the safety of his family.
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* [[Toussaint Louverture letter to Napoléon from onboard the Hero]] - Toussaint pleads for the safety of his family.
* [[Toussaint Louverture letter to Napoléon from Fort de Joux (1802)]] - Toussaint writes from French captivity at [[Fort de Joux]].
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* [[Toussaint Louverture letter to Napoléon from Fort de Joux (1802)]] - Toussaint writes from French captivity at [[Fort de Joux]].
  
=====Letters by Napoléon Bonaparte to Toussaint Louverture=====
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=====Letters by Napoléon Bonaparte to Toussaint Louverture=====
* [[Napoléon Bonaparte letter to Toussaint Louverture (1801)]] - Napoléon anounces that he is sending [[General Leclerc]] to Haiti.
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* [[Napoléon Bonaparte letter to Toussaint Louverture (1801)]] - Napoléon anounces that he is sending [[General Leclerc]] to Haiti.
  
====Napoléon's Generals in Saint-Domingue====
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====Napoléon's Generals in Saint-Domingue====
 
* [[Charles Victoire-Emmanuel Leclerc]]
 
* [[Charles Victoire-Emmanuel Leclerc]]
 
* [[Donatien-Marie-Joseph Rochambeau]]
 
* [[Donatien-Marie-Joseph Rochambeau]]
Line 51: Line 50:
  
 
====Miscellaneous====
 
====Miscellaneous====
* [[Napoléon Bonaparte Proclamation on Saint-Domingue (1799)]]
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* [[Napoléon Bonaparte Proclamation on Saint-Domingue (1799)]]
 
* '''[[Memoir of Toussaint Louverture, Written by Himself]]''' - Autobiographical text written by Toussaint at Fort-de-Joux.
 
* '''[[Memoir of Toussaint Louverture, Written by Himself]]''' - Autobiographical text written by Toussaint at Fort-de-Joux.
* '''[[Napoléon decree re-establishing slavery in the French colonies (French)|Napoléon decree re-establishing slavery in the French colonies]]''' - (French text).
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* '''[[Napoléon decree re-establishing slavery in the French colonies (French)|Napoléon decree re-establishing slavery in the French colonies]]''' - (French text).
 
* [[The Haitian Revolution and the Louisiana Purchase]] - The significance of the Haitian Revolution in regard to the Louisiana Purchase in [[1803]].
 
* [[The Haitian Revolution and the Louisiana Purchase]] - The significance of the Haitian Revolution in regard to the Louisiana Purchase in [[1803]].
* [[Marie-François Auguste de Caffarelli du Falga]] - Sent by Napoléon to interrogate Toussaint Louverture in his prison cell at Fort de Joux.
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* [[Marie-François Auguste de Caffarelli du Falga]] - Sent by Napoléon to interrogate Toussaint Louverture in his prison cell at Fort de Joux.
 
<br>
 
<br>
 
* [[The History and Present Condition of St. Domingo (1837)]] - Excerpt of 1837 book describing Bonaparte's attitude toward [[Toussaint Louverture]].
 
* [[The History and Present Condition of St. Domingo (1837)]] - Excerpt of 1837 book describing Bonaparte's attitude toward [[Toussaint Louverture]].
Line 61: Line 60:
  
 
==Further reading==
 
==Further reading==
* Ribbe, Claude. (2005) ''Le Crime de Napoléon''. Editions Privé. ISBN 235076012X (French language)
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* Ribbe, Claude. (2005) ''Le Crime de Napoléon''. Editions Privé. ISBN 235076012X (French language)
 
** Ribbe, Claude. (2007) ''Napoleon's Crimes: A Blueprint for Hitler''. Oneworld Publications. ISBN 1851685332
 
** Ribbe, Claude. (2007) ''Napoleon's Crimes: A Blueprint for Hitler''. Oneworld Publications. ISBN 1851685332
  
 
==References==
 
==References==
 
* {{Toussaint L'Ouverture: A Biography and Autobiography}}
 
* {{Toussaint L'Ouverture: A Biography and Autobiography}}
* Execrable. (n.d.). ''The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition''. Retrieved January, 13, 2006, from Answers.com Web site: [http://www.answers.com/topic/execrable].
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* Execrable. (n.d.). ''The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition''. Retrieved January, 13, 2006, from Answers.com Web site: [http://www.answers.com/topic/execrable].
 
* {{The Black Jacobins}}
 
* {{The Black Jacobins}}
Léger, Jacques Nicolas. ''Haiti Her History And Her Detractors''. (1907). The Neale Publishing Company. New York. [http://ia340938.us.archive.org/2/items/haitiherhistoryh00lguoft/haitiherhistoryh00lguoft_djvu.txt available online] - Accessed on August 16, 2007
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Léger, Jacques Nicolas. ''Haiti Her History And Her Detractors''. (1907). The Neale Publishing Company. New York. [http://ia340938.us.archive.org/2/items/haitiherhistoryh00lguoft/haitiherhistoryh00lguoft_djvu.txt available online] - Accessed on August 16, 2007
 
* Randall, Colin. (2005). ''Napoleon's genocide 'on a par with Hitler<nowiki>'</nowiki>''. London: Telegraph (newspaper) Retrieved 17:34, July 19, 2006 [http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/main.jhtml?xml=/news/2005/11/26/wfra26.xml&sSheet=/news/2005/11/26/ixworld.html Available online] (originally published on November 26, 2005)
 
* Randall, Colin. (2005). ''Napoleon's genocide 'on a par with Hitler<nowiki>'</nowiki>''. London: Telegraph (newspaper) Retrieved 17:34, July 19, 2006 [http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/main.jhtml?xml=/news/2005/11/26/wfra26.xml&sSheet=/news/2005/11/26/ixworld.html Available online] (originally published on November 26, 2005)
 
* Napoleon I of France. (2005, December 7). ''Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia''. Retrieved 09:21, December 7, 2005 [http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Napoleon_I_of_France&oldid=30412188].
 
* Napoleon I of France. (2005, December 7). ''Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia''. Retrieved 09:21, December 7, 2005 [http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Napoleon_I_of_France&oldid=30412188].
  
 
==External links==
 
==External links==
* Louverture, Isaac and Métral, Antoine. ''Histoire de l'expédition des Français à Saint-Domingue sous le consulat de Napoléon Bonaparte'' (1825). Paris: Fanjat Ainé. [http://books.google.com/books?id=60NAG_H1ey8C&pg=PA227&lpg=PA227&dq=histoire+de+%22l+expédition%22+des+français+à+%22saint+domingue%22+sous+le+consultat+de+by+isaac+toussaint+louverture&source=web&ots=ZdwO0J39A2&sig=T2q8nAfWTv0er21nkcbQY6N9SX4#PPA5,M1 Available online (Google Books)]. (French text)
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* Louverture, Isaac and Métral, Antoine. ''Histoire de l'expédition des Français à Saint-Domingue sous le consulat de Napoléon Bonaparte'' (1825). Paris: Fanjat Ainé. [http://books.google.com/books?id=60NAG_H1ey8C&pg=PA227&lpg=PA227&dq=histoire+de+%22l+expédition%22+des+français+à+%22saint+domingue%22+sous+le+consultat+de+by+isaac+toussaint+louverture&source=web&ots=ZdwO0J39A2&sig=T2q8nAfWTv0er21nkcbQY6N9SX4#PPA5,M1 Available online (Google Books)]. (French text)
* Mignet, François-Auguste-Marie-Alexis.(1824). ''History of the French Revolution from 1789 to 1814''. (1824). Project Gutenberg: [http://www.gutenberg.org/etext/9602 etext].  
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* Mignet, François-Auguste-Marie-Alexis.(1824). ''History of the French Revolution from 1789 to 1814''. (1824). Project Gutenberg: [http://www.gutenberg.org/etext/9602 etext].  
 
* Wikipedia: [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Glossary_of_the_French_Revolution Glossary of the French Revolution]
 
* Wikipedia: [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Glossary_of_the_French_Revolution Glossary of the French Revolution]
 
* Wikipedia: [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Napoleon%27s_Holocaust Napoleon's Holocaust].
 
* Wikipedia: [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Napoleon%27s_Holocaust Napoleon's Holocaust].

Revision as of 08:00, 28 October 2007

Napoléon Bonaparte and his horse Vizir.
Napoléon Bonaparte (born Napoleone di Buonaparte) (August 15, 1769 Ajaccio, Corsica - May 5, 1821 St. Helena) became Toussaint Louverture's main enemy after he came to power in 1799. The French emperor tried to re-establish slavery in the Caribbean colony Saint-Domingue through his brother in law General Leclerc. He had Toussaint Louverture captured by deceit and transferred to a dungeon in the French Alps where the Haitian revolutionary leader later died.

The First Consul

Napoléon Bonaparte was a general of the French Revolution, and the ruler of France as First Consul (Premier Consul) of the First French Republic from November 11, 1799 to May 18, 1804, then as Emperor of the French (Empereur des Français) and King of Italy under the name Napoleon I (French: Napoléon Ier) from May 18, 1804 to April 6, 1814, and again briefly from March 22, to June 22, 1815.
Napoléon first came to power on November 9, 1799 (the "18th Brumaire") through a coup d'état, thus ending the French Revolution.

Re-establishing slavery in the colonies

In late 1801 Bonaparte dispatched the generals Antoine Richepanse to Guadeloupe and Leclerc to Saint-Domingue with the goals to massacre Africans living in the colonies and to once again establish slavery.

"On the 20th of May, 1801, Bonaparte published the infamous decree which placed the French colonies in the state in which they were before the year 1789, and which, authorizing the slave-trade, abrogated all laws to the contrary. This execrable 1 measure marks the real character of the Corsican adventurer, and hands his name down to posterity covered with disgrace. Soon, however, did he find that in an evil hour he had overstepped the limits of prudence; and therefore he put forth another decree which hypocritically excepted Saint Domingo and Guadeloupe, "because these islands are free, not only by right, but in fact, whilst the other colonies are actually in slavery, and it would be dangerous to put an end to that state of things." (Beard p. 154)

Napoléon's Caribbean Genocide

Napoléon's lagacy in the Caribbean is one of great violence, genocide and destruction. The French historian Claude Ribbe states: "...Napoleon ordered the killing of as many blacks as possible in Haiti and Guadeloupe to be replaced by new, docile slaves from Africa," (Randall)

Late in the war against the Haitian revolutionary forces, Napoléon Bonaparte's troops resorted to outright genocidal tactics. In 1803, General "Rochambeau [Napoléon's supreme commander and under his direct orders], accompanied by the French Generals Pageot and Lavalette, undertook to subdue [the Haitian troops]''. His arrival at Jacmel was signalized by a horrible crime: by his orders, about 100 natives, who were only suspected of having little zeal for France, were thrown into the hold of a man-of-war 2, the hatchways of which were tightly closed; the men were then suffocated by the fumes of the ignited sulphur, their corpses being afterward thrown into the sea." {Léger p. 130)

The Louisiana Purchase

In 1803, Bonaparte faced a major setback when an army he sent in 1801 under the command of General Leclerc (After Leclercs death in 1802 this force was led by General Rochambeau) to reconquer Saint-Domingue and re-establish slavery, was destroyed by a fierce resistance of the Haitian fighters led by Toussaint Louverture and after Toussaint had been deported to France, Jean-Jacques Dessalines. Recognizing that the French possessions on the mainland of North America would now be indefensible, and facing imminent war with Britain, he sold them to the United States —the Louisiana Purchase—for less than three cents per acre ($7.40/km²).

The loss of Saint-Dominque

Napoléon Bonaparte
Although Napoléon Bonaparte had given orders to his brother in law General Leclerc to capture the leader of the Haitian Revolution Toussaint Louverture, the Haitians regrouped. Under the command of Jean-Jacques Dessalines the disparate forces fighting against the French attempt to regain control in Saint-Dominque - and Napoléon's attempt re-establish slavery - were united. The French troops, over 30.000 of which had arrived in the colony in 1802, could not stand up to Dessalines, who had turned the conflict into a guerilla war. The fighting culminated in the Battle of Vertières, hours after which the French military leader General Rochambeau capitulated. While Leclerc had been unable to contain the Haitian forces, Rochambeau's cruel actions served to further unite Napoléon's Haitian enemies.

The loss of the colony of Saint-Domingue was a major blow to the French empire. While the fighting in Saint-Domingue, beginning with the Boukman Rebellion in 1791 had cut down the profits of the slave system, Napoléon had intended to restore the colonial economy of Saint-Domingue, which had been the worlds richest and most productive colony. Napoléon had given up Louisiana in an attempt to keep control of the possessions in the Caribbean Sea. Whereas the French had re-installed slavery in Guadeloupe through Richepanse, news of which installed great fear in Saint-Domingue, they had lost the revenue from slavery in what became Haiti in 1804 and received their first major defeat in their global conquest.


Note 1: Execrable: adj.

1. Deserving of execration; hateful.
2. Extremely inferior; very bad: an execrable meal.


Note 2: A man-of-war refers to an armed naval vessel.

See also

Correspondence between Toussaint Louverture and Napoléon Bonaparte

Letters by Napoléon Bonaparte to Toussaint Louverture

Napoléon's Generals in Saint-Domingue

Miscellaneous


Further reading

  • Ribbe, Claude. (2005) Le Crime de Napoléon. Editions Privé. ISBN 235076012X (French language)
    • Ribbe, Claude. (2007) Napoleon's Crimes: A Blueprint for Hitler. Oneworld Publications. ISBN 1851685332

References

  • Beard, J. R. (John Relly) (1863). Toussaint L'Ouverture: A Biography and Autobiography. Chapel Hill, NC: Academic Affairs Library, UNC-CH. Online Publication
  • Execrable. (n.d.). The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition. Retrieved January, 13, 2006, from Answers.com Web site: [1].
  • James, C.L.R. (1989). The Black Jacobins. Toussaint L'Ouverture and the San Domingo Revolution. (2nd Ed., Revised) New York: Vintage Press. ISBN 0-679-72467-2.
  • Léger, Jacques Nicolas. Haiti Her History And Her Detractors. (1907). The Neale Publishing Company. New York. available online - Accessed on August 16, 2007
  • Randall, Colin. (2005). Napoleon's genocide 'on a par with Hitler'. London: Telegraph (newspaper) Retrieved 17:34, July 19, 2006 Available online (originally published on November 26, 2005)
  • Napoleon I of France. (2005, December 7). Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Retrieved 09:21, December 7, 2005 [2].

External links