Saint-Domingue's Free People of Color and the Tools of Revolution

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Garrigus, John D., Johns Hopkins University. "Saint-Domingue's Free People of Color and the Tools of Revolution." The Haitian Revolution: Viewed 200 Years After, an International Scholarly Conference. John Carter Brown Library, Providence, RI. June 18, 2004.


Following are rough notes of Garrigus's speech, taken by Stuart Maxwell on June 18, 2004.

  • Free blacks in Saint Domingue were quite wealthy.
  • Free colored planters were established creole colonists who had grown up inside the French colony. They were "redefined" at some point as affranchis - freed slaves - which they were not.
  • Garrigus refers to the "failed revolution" of 1769, which caused the colonists to reassess their understanding of themselves as colonialists.
  • Saint Domingue's (black) colonists who served in Savannah, GA, during the American Revolution returned to Saint-Domingue, were conscripted into colonial defense, then disbanded as a unit.